Ibhentshi lokuhlola i-FMUSER RF Power Amplifier Voltage le-AM Transmitter Power Amplifier (PA) kanye nokuhlola i-Buffer Amplifier

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Ukuhlola Ibhodi Le-RF Power Amplifier | Isixazululo sokuthumela i-AM esivela ku-FMUSER

 

Izikhulisi zamandla e-RF nama-buffer amplifiers yizingxenye ezibaluleke kakhulu zama-transmitters e-AM futhi zihlala zidlala indima ebalulekile ekwakhiweni kwangaphambi kwesikhathi, ukulethwa, kanye nokulungiswa kwangemva kokulungiswa.

 

Lezi zingxenye eziyisisekelo zenza kube lula ukudluliswa kwamasignali e-RF. Kuye ngezinga lamandla namandla adingwa umamukeli ukuze akhombe futhi anqume isignali, noma yimuphi umonakalo ungashiya izithumeli zokusakaza zinokuhlanekezelwa kwesignali, ukusetshenziswa kwamandla okuncishisiwe, nokunye okwengeziwe.

 

I-FMUSER AM Transmitter RF power amplifier ukufundwa kwe-san-level waveform esigabeni seshubhu

 

Ukuze kulungiswe kamuva futhi kulungiswe izingxenye eziyinhloko zama-transmitters okusakaza, ezinye izinto ezibalulekile zokuhlola zibalulekile. Isixazululo sokulinganisa se-FMUSER sika-RF sikusiza ukuthi uqinisekise umklamo wakho ngokusebenzisa ukusebenza kokulinganisa kwe-RF okungenakuqhathaniswa.

 

Indlela Esebenza

 

Isetshenziselwa kakhulu ukuhlola lapho ibhodi lesikhulisi samandla kanye nebhodi le-buffer amplifier yesidluliseli se-AM ingakwazi ukuqinisekiswa ngemva kokulungiswa.

 

Ibhentshi Lokuhlola I-FMUSER AM Transmitter ye-amplifier yamandla ne-buffer amplifier

 

Izici

 

  • Ukunikezwa kwamandla kwebhentshi lokuhlola yi-AC220V, futhi iphaneli inokushintsha kwamandla. Okukhiqizwa ngaphakathi -5v, 40v, kanye ne-30v kunikezwa amandla okushintsha okwakhelwe ngaphakathi.
  • Kukhona ukuhlolwa kokuphuma kwebhafa kokuxhumana kwe-Q9 engxenyeni engenhla yebhentshi lokuhlola: i-J1 ne-J2, i-interface ye-Q9 yokuhlola okukhipha isikhulisi samandla: i-J1 ne-J2, kanye nenkomba ye-voltage ye-amplifier yamandla (59C23). I-J1 ne-J2 zixhunywe ku-oscilloscope ehlanganiswe kabili.
  • Uhlangothi lwesobunxele lwengxenye engezansi yebhentshi lokuhlola indawo yokuhlola i-buffer amplification, kanti uhlangothi lwesokudla isivivinyo sebhodi le-amplifier.

 

Imiyalelo

 

  • J1: Hlola iswishi yamandla
  • I-S1: Ukuhlolwa kwebhodi lesikhulisi kanye neswishi yesikhethi sokuhlola ibhodi lebhafa
  • I-S3/S4: Ukuhlolwa kwebhodi le-amplifier yamandla kwesokunxele nakwesokudla ukuvula isignali yokuvula noma ukuvala ukukhetha.

 

I-RF Power Amplifier: Iyini futhi Isebenza Kanjani?

 

Emkhakheni womsakazo, isikhulisi samandla e-RF (i-RF PA), noma isikhulisi samandla efrikhwensi yomsakazo iyisisetshenziswa esivamile sika-elekthronikhi esisetshenziselwa ukukhulisa nokukhipha okuqukethwe okokufaka, okuvamise ukuvezwa njengamandla kagesi noma amandla, kuyilapho umsebenzi wesikhulisi samandla e-RF uwukuphakamisa. izinto "ezimuncayo" ziye ezingeni elithile futhi "zizithumele emhlabeni wangaphandle."

 

Isebenza kanjani?

 

Imvamisa, isikhulisi samandla e-RF sakhelwa kusidlulisi ngendlela yebhodi lesekethe. Kunjalo, isikhulisi samandla e-RF singaphinda sibe idivayisi ehlukile exhunywe ekukhiqizweni kwesidlulisi esikhipha amandla aphansi ngentambo ye-coaxial. Ngenxa yesikhala esilinganiselwe, uma unentshisekelo, wamukelekile Shiya amazwana futhi ngizowabuyekeza ngolunye usuku esikhathini esizayo :).

 

Ukubaluleka kwesikhulisi samandla se-RF ukuthola amandla amakhulu ngokwanele okukhipha i-RF. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi, okokuqala, kumjikelezo ongaphambili wesidluliseli, ngemuva kokuthi isignali yomsindo ifakiwe kusuka kudivayisi yomthombo womsindo ngomugqa wedatha, izoguqulelwa isignali ye-RF ebuthaka kakhulu ngokushintshashintsha, kodwa lezi zibuthakathaka. amasignali awanele ukuhlangabezana nokusakazwa okukhulu. Ngakho-ke, lawa masignali ashintshiwe e-RF adlula ochungechungeni lokukhulisa (isiteji sebhafa, isigaba sokukhulisa esimaphakathi, isigaba sokukhulisa amandla sokugcina) ngesikhulisamandla se-RF size sikhuliswe sibe namandla anele bese sidlula kunethiwekhi efanayo. Ekugcineni, ingafakwa ku-antenna futhi ikhiphe imisebe.

 

Ngomsebenzi womamukeli, iyunithi ye-transceiver noma i-transmitter-receiver ingaba neswishi yangaphakathi noma yangaphandle yokudlulisela/yokwamukela (T/R). Umsebenzi weswishi ye-T/R ukushintsha uthi ku-transmitter noma umamukeli njengoba kudingeka.

 

Siyini Isakhiwo Esiyisisekelo Se-RF Power Amplifier?

 

Izinkomba zobuchwepheshe eziyinhloko zama-amplifiers we-RF amandla okukhipha kanye nokusebenza kahle. Indlela yokuthuthukisa amandla okukhipha nokusebenza kahle kuwumongo wemigomo yokuklama yezikhulisamandla zamandla e-RF.

 

Isikhulisamandla se-RF sinefrikhwensi yokusebenza eshiwo, futhi ifrikhwensi yokusebenza ekhethiwe kufanele ibe phakathi kwebanga lefrikhwensi yayo. Ngefrikhwensi yokusebenza engu-150 megahertz (MHz), isikhulisi samandla e-RF esibangeni elingu-145 kuya ku-155 MHz singafaneleka. Isikhulisi samandla se-RF esinebanga lemvamisa elingu-165 kuya ku-175 MHz ngeke sikwazi ukusebenza kokuthi 150 MHz.

 

Imvamisa, kusikhulisamandla se-RF, imvamisa eyisisekelo noma i-harmonic ethile ingakhethwa yisekethe ye-LC resonant ukuze kuzuzwe ukukhulisa okungahlanekezelwe. Ngaphezu kwalokhu, izingxenye ze-harmonic ekuphumeni kufanele zibe zincane ngangokunokwenzeka ukuze zigweme ukuphazamiseka kwezinye iziteshi.

 

Amasekhethi esikhulisi samandla e-RF angase asebenzise ama-transistors noma amasekhethi adidiyelwe ukuze enze i-amplifier. Ekwakhiweni kwesikhulisi samandla se-RF, umgomo uwukuba nokukhulisa amandla okwanele ukuze kukhiqizwe amandla okukhiphayo ofisayo, kuyilapho kuvumela ukungafani kwesikhashana nokuncane phakathi kwesidlulisi nesifunzi se-antenna kanye nothi ngokwalo. I-impedance ye-antenna feeder kanye ne-antenna ngokwayo kuvame ukuba ngu-50 ohms.

 

Ngokufanelekile, inhlanganisela ye-antenna nomugqa wokuphakelayo izokwethula i-impedance yokumelana nemvamisa yokusebenza.

Kungani I-RF Power Amplifier Idingeka?

 

Njengengxenye eyinhloko yohlelo lokudlulisa, ukubaluleka kwesikhulisi samandla e-RF kuyabonakala. Sonke siyazi ukuthi isidlulisi sokusakaza esiphrofeshinali sivame ukufaka izingxenye ezilandelayo:

 

  1. Igobolondo eliqinile: ngokuvamile elenziwe nge-aluminium alloy, intengo iphakama.
  2. Ibhodi lokufakwayo komsindo: elisetshenziswa kakhulu ukuthola okokufaka kwesignali okuvela kumthombo womsindo, nokuxhuma isidlulisi nomthombo womsindo ngekhebuli yomsindo (efana ne-XLR, 3.45MM, njll.). Ibhodi yokufaka okulalelwayo ivamise ukubekwa ephanelini elingemuva lesithumeli futhi liyiphaneli engunxande enepayipi eline-aspect ratio ecishe ibe ngu-4:1.
  3. Ukunikezwa kwamandla: Isetshenziselwa ukunikezwa kwamandla. Amazwe ahlukene anezindinganiso ezihlukene zokuphakela amandla, njenge-110V, 220V, njll. Kwezinye iziteshi zomsakazo ezinkulu, ukunikezwa kwamandla okuvamile kuyi-3 Phase 4 Wire System (380V/50Hz) ngokuya ngokwendinganiso. Futhi iwumhlaba wezimboni ngokwezinga, elihlukile kunelizinga likagesi womphakathi.
  4. Iphaneli yokulawula nemoduli: imvamisa itholakala endaweni egqame kakhulu kuphaneli yangaphambili yesithumeli, eyakhiwe iphaneli yokufaka nokhiye abathile bokusebenza (ifindo, okhiye bokulawula, isikrini sokubonisa, njll.), esetshenziswa kakhulu ukuguqula isignali yokufaka umsindo. kusignali ye-RF (iphelelwe amandla kakhulu).
  5. Isikhulisi samandla e-RF: imvamisa ibhekisa ebhodini lesikhulisi samandla, elisetshenziswa kakhulu ukukhulisa okokufaka kwesiginali ye-RF ebuthaka kusuka engxenyeni yokushintshashintsha. Iqukethe i-PCB nochungechunge lwezingxenye eziyinkimbinkimbi (ezifana nemigqa yokufaka ye-RF, ama-chips amplifier yamandla, izihlungi, njll.), futhi Ixhunywe ohlelweni lokuphakela izinti ngohlelo oluphumayo lwe-RF.
  6. Ukunikezwa kwamandla kanye nefeni: Imininingwane yenziwa ngumkhiqizi wesidluliseli, ikakhulukazi esetshenziselwa ukunikezwa kwamandla kanye nokukhipha ukushisa.

 

Phakathi kwazo, isikhulisi samandla e-RF siwumgogodla, sibiza kakhulu, futhi siyingxenye eshiswa kalula yesidluliseli, esinqunywa ikakhulukazi ukuthi sisebenza kanjani: okukhiphayo kwe-RF amplifier yamandla bese kuxhunywa ku-antenna yangaphandle.

 

Ama-antenna amaningi angacutshungulwa ukuze kuthi lapho ehlanganiswa ne-feeder, anikeze ukuvimbela okuhle kakhulu kwesidluliseli. Lokhu kuhambelana kwe-impedance kuyadingeka ukuze kudluliswe amandla amaningi ukusuka kusidlulisi kuya othini. Ama-antenna anezici ezihluke kancane kububanzi befrikhwensi. Isivivinyo esibalulekile siwukuqinisekisa ukuthi amandla abonisiwe asuka othini aye ekuphakeleni futhi abuyele kumthumeli aphansi ngokwanele. Lapho ukungafani kwe-impedance kuphezulu kakhulu, amandla e-RF athunyelwe ku-antenna angabuyela kusidlulisi, enze i-high stand wave ratio (SWR), okubangele ukuthi amandla okudlulisela ahlale kusikhulisamandla se-RF, okubangela ukushisa ngokweqile ngisho nokulimala ukusebenza. izingxenye.

 

Uma i-amplifier ingaba nokusebenza okuhle, khona-ke ingaba negalelo elikhulu, elibonisa "inani" layo, kodwa uma kunezinkinga ezithile nge-amplifier, khona-ke ngemva kokuqala ukusebenza noma ukusebenza isikhathi esithile, hhayi nje kuphela. isikhathi eside Nikeza noma yimuphi "umnikelo", kodwa kungase kube "ukuthuthumela" okungalindelekile. "Ukuthuthumela" okunjalo kuyinhlekelele ezweni langaphandle noma i-amplifier ngokwayo.

 

I-Buffer amplifier: Iyini futhi Isebenza Kanjani?

 

Ama-buffer amplifier asetshenziswa kuma-AM transmitters.

 

Isidluliseli se-AM siqukethe isiteji se-oscillator, isiteji sebhafa nesiphindaphindayo, isigaba somshayeli, nesiteji se-modulator, lapho i-oscillator eyinhloko inika amandla isikhulisi se-buffer, silandelwa yisiteji sebhafa.

 

Isiteji esiseduze kwe-oscillator sibizwa ngokuthi i-buffer noma i-buffer amplifier (ngezinye izikhathi ibizwa ngokuthi i-buffer) - iqanjwe kanjalo ngoba ihlukanisa i-oscillator kusikhulisamandla.

 

Ngokusho kwe-Wikipedia, isikhulisi se-buffer siyi-amplifier enikeza ukuguqulwa kwe-impedance kagesi ukusuka kwesinye isekethe kuye kwenye ukuze kuvikelwe umthombo wesignali kunoma iyiphi yamanje (noma i-voltage, yebhafa yamanje) umthwalo ongawukhiqiza.

 

Eqinisweni, ohlangothini lwe-transmitter, i-buffer amplifier isetshenziselwa ukuhlukanisa i-oscillator eyinhloko kwezinye izigaba zomsakazo, ngaphandle kwe-buffer, uma i-amplifier yamandla ishintsha, izobuyela emuva ku-oscillator futhi ibangele ukuthi ishintshe imvamisa, futhi uma i-oscillation Uma isidlulisi sishintsha imvamisa, umamukeli uzolahlekelwa ukuthintana nomthumeli futhi athole ulwazi olungaphelele.

 

Isebenza kanjani?

 

I-oscillator eyinhloko kusidluliseli se-AM ikhiqiza imvamisa yenkampani yenethiwekhi engaphansi kwe-harmonic. I-crystal oscillator isetshenziselwa ukukhiqiza le-sub-harmonic oscillation ezinzile. Ngemuva kwalokho, imvamisa inyuswa inani elifiswayo ngejeneretha ye-harmonic. Imvamisa yenkampani yenethiwekhi kufanele izinze kakhulu. Noma yiluphi ushintsho kule frikhwensi lungabangela ukuphazamiseka kwezinye iziteshi zokudlulisela. Njengomphumela, umamukeli uzokwamukela izinhlelo ezivela kubathumeli abaningi.

 

Ama-amplifiers ashuniwe anikezela ngokuphazamiseka kokufaka okuphezulu kuma-oscillator frequency main angama-buffer amplifiers. Kuyasiza ukuvimbela noma yiluphi ushintsho kumthwalo wamanje. Ngenxa ye-impedance yayo ephezulu yokufaka imvamisa yokusebenza kwe-oscillator eyinhloko, izinguquko azithinti i-oscillator eyinhloko. Ngakho-ke, i-buffer amplifier ihlukanisa i-oscillator eyinhloko kwezinye izigaba ukuze imiphumela yokulayisha ingashintshi imvamisa ye-oscillator eyinhloko.

 

Ibhentshi Lokuhlola I-RF Power Amplifier: Kuyini nokuthi Lisebenza Kanjani

 

Igama elithi "ibhentshi lokuhlola" lisebenzisa ulimi oluchaza ihadiwe ngomklamo wedijithali ukuchaza ikhodi yokuhlola eqinisekisa i-DUT futhi iqhube izivivinyo.

 

Avivinye uBench

 

Ibhentshi lokuhlola noma ibhentshi lokusebenzela lokuhlola liyindawo esetshenziselwa ukuqinisekisa ukulunga noma ukuhluzeka kwengqondo kwedizayini noma imodeli.

 

Igama laqalwa ekuhloleni okokusebenza kwe-elekthronikhi, lapho unjiniyela ehlala ebhentshini lalebhu, abambe amathuluzi okulinganisa nawokukhohlisa njengama-oscilloscopes, ama-multimeter, ama-ayina asodayo, ama-wire cutter, njll., futhi aqinisekise mathupha ukufaneleka kwedivayisi ngaphansi kokuhlolwa. (DUT).

 

Kumongo wesofthiwe noma i-firmware noma ubunjiniyela bezingxenyekazi zekhompuyutha, ibhentshi lokuhlola indawo lapho umkhiqizo osathuthukiswayo uhlolwa ngosizo lwesofthiwe namathuluzi wehadiwe. Kwezinye izimo, isofthiwe ingase idinge izinguquko ezincane ukuze isebenze nebhentshi lokuhlola, kodwa ukubhala ngekhodi ngokucophelela kuqinisekisa ukuthi izinguquko zingahlehliswa kalula futhi azikho iziphazamisi ezethulwayo.

 

Enye incazelo yegama elithi "umbhede wokuhlola" iyindawo engayodwa, elawulwayo, efana kakhulu nendawo yokukhiqiza, kodwa ayicashi futhi ayibonakali emphakathini, amakhasimende, njll. Ngakho-ke kuphephile ukwenza izinguquko njengoba kungekho msebenzisi wokugcina ohilelekile.

 

Idivayisi ye-RF ingaphansi kokuhlolwa (DUT)

 

Idivayisi engaphansi kokuhlolwa (DUT) iyisisetshenziswa esihloliwe ukuze kutholwe ukusebenza nekhono. I-DUT ingaba yingxenye yemojuli enkulu noma iyunithi ebizwa ngokuthi iyunithi ehlolwayo (UUT). Hlola i-DUT ukuze uthole amaphutha ukuze uqinisekise ukuthi idivayisi isebenza kahle. Ukuhlola kuklanyelwe ukuvimbela amadivayisi alimele ukuthi angafinyeleli emakethe, okungase futhi kwehlise izindleko zokukhiqiza.

 

Idivayisi ehlolwayo (DUT), eyaziwa nangokuthi idivayisi ehlolwayo (EUT) kanye neyunithi engaphansi kokuhlolwa (UUT), iwukuhlolwa komkhiqizo okhiqiziwe ohlolwayo lapho ukhiqizwa okokuqala noma kamuva emjikelezweni wayo wempilo njengengxenye yokuhlola okusebenzayo okuqhubekayo. kanye nokulinganisa. Lokhu kungabandakanya ukuhlolwa kwangemva kokulungisa ukuze kutholwe ukuthi umkhiqizo uyawenza yini lokho okucaciswe komkhiqizo wangempela.

 

Ezivivinyweni ze-semiconductor, idivayisi evivinywayo iwukufa ku-wafer noma ingxenye yokugcina epakishiwe. Usebenzisa isistimu yokuxhuma, xhuma izingxenye kumishini yokuhlola ezenzakalelayo noma eyenziwa ngesandla. Izinto zokuhlola zibe sezinika ingxenye amandla, zinikeze amasignali okuvuselela, futhi zilinganise futhi zihlole ukuphuma kwesisetshenziswa. Ngale ndlela, umhloli unquma ukuthi idivayisi ethile engaphansi kokuhlolwa iyahlangabezana yini nokucaciswa kwedivayisi.

 

Ngokuvamile, i-RF DUT ingaba umklamo wesekethe nganoma iyiphi inhlanganisela nenombolo yezingxenye ze-analog ne-RF, ama-transistors, ama-resistors, ama-capacitor, njll., alungele ukulingiswa nge-Agilent Circuit Envelope Simulator. Amasekhethi e-RF ayinkimbinkimbi azothatha isikhathi esengeziwe ukulingisa nokusebenzisa inkumbulo eyengeziwe.

 

Isikhathi sokulingisa ibhentshi nezidingo zenkumbulo zingacatshangwa njengenhlanganisela yezilinganiso zebhentshi lebhentshi nezidingo zesekhethi ye-RF elula kanye nezimfuneko zokulingisa imvilophu yesekethe ye-RF DUT ethandwayo.

 

I-RF DUT exhunywe ebhentshini lokuhlola elingenantambo ngokuvamile ingasetshenziswa nebhentshi lokuhlola ukwenza izilinganiso ezizenzakalelayo ngokusetha amapharamitha ebhentshi lokuhlola. Izilungiselelo zepharamitha yokulinganisa okuzenzakalelayo ziyatholakala ku-RF DUT evamile:

 

  • Isignali yokufaka (RF) enefrikhwensi yenkampani yenethiwekhi yomsakazo engashintshi iyadingeka. Okukhiphayo kwebhentshi lokuhlola lomthombo wesignali ye-RF akukhiqizi isignali ye-RF okuvama kwayo kwenkampani yenethiwekhi ye-RF kuhluka ngokuhamba kwesikhathi. Nokho, ibhentshi lokuhlola lizosekela isignali yokuphumayo equkethe isigaba senkampani yenethiwekhi ye-RF kanye nokushintshwa kwemvamisa, okungamelwa izinguquko ezifanele zemvilophu engu-I kanye no-Q ngefrikhwensi yenkampani yenethiwekhi ye-RF.
  • Kukhiqizwa isignali ephumayo enefrikhwensi yenkampani yenethiwekhi ye-RF. Isiginali yokufaka yebhentshi lokuhlola akumele iqukathe imvamisa yenkampani yenethiwekhi okuvama kwayo kuyahlukahluka ngokuhamba kwesikhathi. Nokho, ibhentshi lokuhlola lizosekela amasiginali okokufaka aqukethe umsindo wesigaba senkampani yenethiwekhi ye-RF noma ukushintsha kwesikhathi kwe-Doppler kwenkampani yenethiwekhi ye-RF. Lokhu kuphazamiseka kwamasignali kulindeleke ukuthi kumelelwe izinguquko ezifanele zemvilophu engu-I kanye no-Q ngefrikhwensi yenkampani yenethiwekhi ye-RF.
  • Isignali yokokufaka evela kujeneretha yesiginali enokumelana nomthombo ongu-50-ohm iyadingeka.
  • Kudingeka isignali yokufaka ngaphandle kwe-spectral mirroring.
  • Khiqiza isignali yokuphumayo edinga ukumelana nomthwalo wangaphandle wama-ohms angu-50.
  • Ikhiqiza isignali yokuphumayo ngaphandle kwesibuko se-spectral.
  • Thembela ebhentshini lokuhlola ukuze lenze noma isiphi isignali ye-bandpass ehlobene nesilinganiso yesiginali yokuphumayo ye-RF DUT.

 

I-AM Transmitter Basics Okufanele Uyazi

 

I-transmitter ekhipha isignali ye-AM ibizwa ngokuthi i-AM transmitter. Lawa ma-transmitters asetshenziswa kumabhendi amagagasi aphakathi nendawo (MW) kanye namaza amafushane (SW) okusakaza kwe-AM. Ibhendi ye-MW inamaza aphakathi kuka-550 kHz no-1650 kHz futhi ibhendi ye-SW inamaza asuka ku-3 MHz kuya ku-30 ​​MHz.

 

Izinhlobo ezimbili zama-AM transmitters asetshenziswa ngokususelwe kumandla okudlulisa yilezi:

 

  1. izinga eliphakeme
  2. izinga eliphansi

 

Ama-transmitters asezingeni eliphezulu asebenzisa ukuguquguquka kwezinga eliphezulu, futhi ama-transmitters asezingeni eliphansi asebenzisa ukuguquguquka kwezinga eliphansi. Ukukhetha phakathi kwezikimu ezimbili zokumodulisa kuncike emandleni okudlulisa wesidluliseli se-AM. Kuma-transmitters okusakaza amandla awo okudlulisa angase abe nge-oda lama-kilowatts, kusetshenziswa ukushintshashintsha kwezinga eliphezulu. Kuma-transmitters anamandla aphansi adinga kuphela ama-watts ambalwa wamandla okudlulisa, kusetshenziswa ukuguquguquka kwezinga eliphansi.

 

Ama-transmitter aphezulu nasezingeni eliphansi

 

Umfanekiso ongezansi ubonisa umdwebo webhulokhi wama-transmitters asezingeni eliphezulu nasezingeni eliphansi. Umehluko oyisisekelo phakathi kwama-transmitters amabili ukukhuliswa kwamandla kwesithwali kanye namasiginali ashintshiwe.

 

Umfanekiso (a) ubonisa umdwebo webhlokhi yesidluliseli se-AM esithuthukisiwe.

 

Umfanekiso (a) udwetshelwe ukudluliselwa komsindo. Ekudluliselweni kwezinga eliphezulu, amandla esithwali namasiginali ashintshiwe ayakhuliswa ngaphambi kokusetshenziswa kusiteji semoduli, njengoba kukhonjisiwe kuMfanekiso (a). Ekumojulisweni kwezinga eliphansi, amandla amasiginali amabili okokufaka esigabeni semoduli awakhuliswa. Amandla okudlulisa adingekayo atholakala esigabeni sokugcina sesithumeli, isikhulisi samandla seClass C.

 

Izingxenye zomfanekiso (a) yilezi:

 

  1. I-Carrier Oscillator
  2. I-Buffer Amplifier
  3. I-Frequency Multiplier
  4. I-Amplifier yamandla
  5. I-Audio Chain
  6. Isikhulisi Samandla Esishintshiwe Sekilasi C
  7. I-Carrier Oscillator

 

I-oscillator yenkampani yenethiwekhi ikhiqiza isignali yenkampani yenethiwekhi kububanzi befrikhwensi yomsakazo. Imvamisa yenkampani yenethiwekhi ihlala iphezulu. Njengoba kunzima ukukhiqiza amafrikhwensi aphezulu ngokuzinza okuhle kwefrikhwensi, ama-oscillator enkampani yenethiwekhi akhiqiza ama-submultiples ngefrikhwensi yenkampani yenethiwekhi oyifunayo. Le sub-octave iphindaphindwa yisiteji sokuphindaphinda ukuze kutholwe imvamisa yenkampani yenethiwekhi oyifunayo. Futhi, i-crystal oscillator ingasetshenziswa kulesi sigaba ukuze kukhiqizwe umthwali we-low-frequency kanye nokuzinza kwefrikhwensi engcono kakhulu. Isigaba sokuphindaphinda imvamisa bese sinyusa imvamisa yenkampani yenethiwekhi ibe ivelu yaso efiselekayo.

 

I-Buffer Amp

 

Inhloso ye-buffer amplifier ikabili. Iqala ngokufanisa i-impedance yokuphuma kwe-oscillator yenkampani yenethiwekhi ne-impedance yokufaka ye-multiplier frequency, isigaba esilandelayo se-oscillator yenkampani yenethiwekhi. Bese ihlukanisa i-oscillator yenkampani yenethiwekhi nesiphindaphinda samaza.

 

Lokhu kuyadingeka ukuze isiphindaphinda singadonsi imisinga emikhulu ku-oscillator yenethiwekhi. Uma lokhu kwenzeka, imvamisa ye-oscillator yenkampani yenethiwekhi ngeke izinzile.

 

I-Frequency Multiplier

 

Imvamisa ephindaphindwayo engaphansi yesiginali yenkampani yenethiwekhi ekhiqizwe i-oscillator yenkampani yenethiwekhi manje isetshenziswa kusiphindaphinda samafrikhwensi nge-buffer amplifier. Lesi sigaba saziwa nangokuthi i-harmonic generator. I-multiplier frequency ikhiqiza ama-harmonics aphezulu we-oscillator oscillator frequency. Ukuphindaphinda amafrikhwensi kuyisekethe eshuniwe eshuna imvamisa yenkampani yenethiwekhi edinga ukudluliselwa.

 

Amandla Amp

 

Amandla esignali yenkampani yenethiwekhi abe esekhuliswa kusigaba sesikhulisi samandla. Lokhu kuyimfuneko eyisisekelo yesithumeli sezinga eliphezulu. Izikhulisamandla ze-Class C zinikeza ama-pulses wamanje wamandla aphezulu esignali yenkampani yenethiwekhi ekuphumeni kwazo.

 

I-Audio Chain

 

Isignali yomsindo ezodluliswa itholakala kumbhobho njengoba kukhonjisiwe kuMfanekiso (a). I-amplifier yomshayeli womsindo ikhulisa i-voltage yalesi siginali. Lokhu kukhulisa kuyadingeka ukuze ushayele izikhulisamandla zomsindo. Okulandelayo, isikhulisi samandla Sekilasi A noma Ikilasi B sikhulisa amandla esignali yomsindo.

 

Isikhulisi Sesikhulisamazwi Esishintshiwe Sekilasi C

 

Lesi yisigaba sokuphumayo se-transmitter. Isignali yomsindo eshintshiwe kanye nesignali yenkampani yenethiwekhi isetshenziswa kulesi sigaba sokushintshwa ngemva kokukhulisa amandla. Ukushintshashintsha kwenzeka kulesi sigaba. Isikhulisi se-Class C siphinde sikhulise amandla esignali ye-AM emandleni okudlulisela atholiwe kabusha. Lesi siginali ekugcineni sidluliselwa ku-antenna, ekhipha isignali endaweni yokudlulisela.

 

Umfanekiso (b): Umdwebo Webhulokhi Yeleveli Ephansi ye-AM

 

I-transmitter yezinga eliphansi ye-AM eboniswe Emfanekisweni (b) ifana nesidlulisi sezinga eliphezulu ngaphandle kokuthi amandla enkampani yenethiwekhi namasignali omsindo awakhuliswanga. Lezi zimpawu ezimbili zisetshenziswa ngokuqondile kusikhulisamandla se-Class C esishintshiwe.

 

Ukushintshashintsha kwenzeka phakathi nalesi sigaba, futhi amandla esignali eshintshiwe akhuliswa abe sezingeni elifunekayo lamandla okudlulisa. I-antenna idlulisela isignali.

 

Ukuhlanganisa isiteji sokukhipha kanye nothi

 

Isigaba sokukhiphayo sesikhulisi samandla sesigaba C esishintshiwe sondla isignali ku-antenna yokudlulisa. Ukuze udlulise amandla aphezulu ukusuka esigabeni sokuphuma ukuya othini, ama-impedance ezigaba ezimbili kufanele afane. Kulokhu, inethiwekhi efanayo iyadingeka. Umeshi phakathi kwakho kokubili kufanele uphelele kuwo wonke amafrikhwensi okudlulisa. Njengoba ukufanisa kumafrikhwensi ahlukene kuyadingeka, ama-inductors nama-capacitor ahlinzeka ngokuvimba okuhlukile kumafrikhwensi ahlukene asetshenziswa kunethiwekhi efanayo.

 

Inethiwekhi ehambisanayo kufanele yakhiwe kusetshenziswa lezi zingxenye ze-passive. Njengoba kukhonjisiwe kuMfanekiso (c) ngezansi.

 

Umfanekiso (c): Inethiwekhi ehambisana ne-Dual Pi

 

Inethiwekhi efanayo esetshenziswa ukuhlanganisa isigaba sokuphuma kwesidlulisi futhi uthi lubizwa ngokuthi inethiwekhi engu-π embaxambili. Inethiwekhi iboniswa kuMfanekiso (c). Iqukethe ama-inductors amabili i-L1 ne-L2 kanye nama-capacitor amabili i-C1 ne-C2. Amanani alezi zingxenye akhethiwe ukuze i-impedance yokufaka yenethiwekhi ibe phakathi kuka-1 no-1'. Umfanekiso (c) uboniswa ukufanisa ukuvinjelwa kokuphumayo kwesigaba sokuphuma kwe-transmitter. Ngaphezu kwalokho, i-impedance yokuphuma kwenethiwekhi ifana nokungasebenzi kahle kwe-antenna.

 

Inethiwekhi ehambisana kabili engu-π iphinde ihlunge izingxenye zefrikhwensi ezingafuneki ezivela ekuphumeni kwesigaba sokugcina sesithumeli. Okukhiphayo kwesikhulisamandla se-Class C esishintshiwe singaqukatha ama-harmonic aphezulu angafuneki kakhulu, njengama-harmonics esibili nawesithathu. Impendulo yemvamisa yenethiwekhi efanayo isethelwe ukwenqaba ngokuphelele lawa ma-harmonic aphezulu angafuneki futhi isignali efunekayo kuphela ehlanganiswe nothi.

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